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Studies on monitoring and screening of introduced plant material for pest and disease incidence, pollinator diversity, ecology and economic importance in horticultural germplasm

 

11.2.4

 

Objective: 

 

  • To screen the germplasm introduced from wild and secondary sources for pest and     disease incidence.
  • To document the species diversity, abundance and foraging behavior of insect pollinators in relation to genotype variability in different fruit crops.
  • To evaluate the impact of pollinators on fruit set, retention, yield and quality parameters and optimize the requirement.
  • To study the impact of plant protection chemicals on pollinators

 

Date of start of this programme:  2009

 

PI: 

 

K. Shivaramu (Ag.Ento)

 

CO PI: 

 

P.V.R. Reddy (Ag.Ento)

P. E. Rajasekharan (Eco.Bot)

M. R. Dinesh (Hort)

C. Vasugi (Hort)

A. K. Saxena (Pl.Path)

 

Achievements: 

 

  • Studies on insect pest incidence on seven species of RET medicinal plants indicated that  Ash weevil (Mylloceros sp) was the serious pest causing defoliation ranging from 15 – 40% during August- October months  on Celastrus paniculatus and Embelia tsjeriamcottam. Adult weevil population ranged from 2-4/shoot. Hairy caterpillar (Euproctis fraterna) was another defoliator found on C. paniculatus.
  • Four species viz., Apis florae, A. cerana, Chrysomya megacephala, Eristalinus arvorum were established as major pollinators of mango under Bangalore conditions.
  • Twenty eight species of insect foragers were recorded during off-season. They mainly belonged to four orders viz., Hymenoptera (Apidae, Megachilidae, Scoliidae), Lepidoptera (Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae), Diptera (Syrphidae, Caliphoridae, Rhiniidae) and Coleoptera (Scarabeidae). Nine species of weed flora were found to support these pollinators during off-season.
  • Foraging behavior of two bee species viz., Apis cerana and A. florea and two dipterans viz., Chrysomya megacephala and Eristalinus arvorum was studied on Alphonso and Banganapalli.
  • There was a  reduction of fruit set in bagged flowers ranged from 68 to 90% in different varieties confirming the role played by pollinators in fruit set..
  • Impact of four insecticides viz., Acephate, Carbaryl, Deltamethrin, Imidacloprid and Lamda Cyhalothrin on bees and other pollinators was studied. All the insecticides resulted in 80-90% reduction of pollinators activity within two hours of spraying.           
  • Apis cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata were the active pollinators on guava.
  • Pollinator diversity was studied in relation to varietal differences. Influence of floral morphological characters on pollinator density was studied. Panicle colour seems to influence pollinator preference in mango.
  • A protocol for mass multiplication of Chrysomya megacephala was standardized.

 

Publications:

 

  1. Shivaramu.K.,Sakthivel,T.and Reddy,P.V.R.,2012 Diversity and forage dynamics of inset pollinators on Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum.L.) Pest management in Horticultural Ecosystem, 18(2):158-160
  2. Shivaramu.K.and Karunakaran,G. 2012. Preliminary observation of Insect pollinators, diversity and activity on Macadamia nut (Macadamia integri folia) (Maiden & Betche) in Kodagu.  Pest management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 18(2): 223
  3. Reddy, P. V. R., Verghese, A. and Varun Rajan, V. 2012. Potential impact of climate change on honeybees (Apis spp.) and their pollination services. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 18 (2) : 121-127
  4. Reddy, P.V.R., Patil, P. and Paripurna, K.A. 2010. Screening germplasm of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr.) for resistance against citrus leaf minor, Phyllocnistis citrella St. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 16 (2): 136-140.

 

 

DNA Fingerprinting and assessment of genetic diversity in horticultural crops germplasm

 

11.2.3

 

Objective: 

 

  • To generate the DNA fingerprints of released varieties of horticultural crops, germplasm and hybrids
  • To assess the genetic diversity of horticultural crops germplasm.
  • To generate a database of DNA fingerprints of horticultural crops germplasm
  • To evaluate the extent of genetic diversity in the horticultural crops germplasm and

 

Date of start of this programme: 2009

 

PI: 

 

T V Ananthanarayanan (till 01-09-2011)

 

CO PI: 

 

Anuradha Sane (Hort)

 

Achievements: 

 

DNA fingerprinting/Molecular characterization of released varieties was done for following ornamental crops using ISSR/SSR markers.

  1. Rose: G.S. Randhawa, Kiran and Nishkant
  2. Crossandra : Arka kanaka, Arka ambara; 2 Hybrids -2005-1 and 2005-2.
  3. Carnation : Arka Flame
  4. Tuberose:    Shringar, Suvasini, Prajwal, Vybhav, Niranthara  
  5. Molecular characterization of 30 genotypes of Gladiolus.

 

Publications:

 

  • Anuradha Sane, Jaya Jhawar and Aswath C, 2010. Molecular characterization of crossandra cultivars/hybrids/species using ISSR markers. In National conference on horticultural biodiversity for livelihood, economic development and health care, 28-31 May 2010, Hi tech Horticultural research and post graduate centre, Bangalore, Karnataka.

 

 

Identification of zygotic seedling in polyembryonic varieties of Mango using molecular approaches

 

11.2.2

 

Objective: 

 

  1. Identification of variability in polyembryonic varieties for germplasm lines with  high proportion of  nucellar embryony and other desirable characters.
  2. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings using SSR markers.

 

Date of start of this programme: 2009

 

PI: 

 

Anuradha Sane

 

CO PI: 

 

S Ganeshan (Genetics)

M.R. Dinesh (Hort)

Leela Sahijram (Pl.Phy)

K.V. Ravishankar (Pl.Phy)

C. Vasugi (Hort)

 

Achievements: 

 

SSR markers are used to identifying zygotic seedling by comparing the DNA profiles of all seedlings with that of the mother plant. The primers that have shown polymorphism for identifying the seedlings of Moreh have to be validated.

 

Publications:

 

  • Anuradha  Sane, M.R Dinesh, C.Vasugi and K.V.Ravishankar. Implications of polyembryony on the growth performance in Mango varieties. Global Conference on Augmenting Production and Utilization of Mango: Biotic and Abiotic Stresses, 21-24 June, 2011 at Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow
  • Anuradha Sane, M.R.Dinesh and U.M.Karthik, Genetic diversity studies in some Mango cultivars using DNA markers. Global Conference on Augmenting Production and Utilization of Mango: Biotic and Abiotic Stresses, 21-24th June, 2011 at Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow.

 

Exploration, collection,domestication & conservation of genetic resources in horticulture crops

Objective: 

 

  1. Identify and demarcate regions/ hot spot areas rich in diversity of indigenous horticultural species relevant to the mandate crops of IIHR and generate distribution patterns of the wild progenitors/relatives of these crops
  2. Track shifts in horticultural plant diversity patterns & disturbance regimes using RS-GIS tools and isolate horticulturally rich germplasm regions/ecosystems to identify potential diversity rich areas to be explored in a focused manner
  3. Study temporal distribution patterns of species - to identify new species which can be domesticated and cultivated as new crops as a part of crop diversification, adding new crops to the existing crop diversity. Identify in situ bio-reserves for species in question for further evolution
  4. Provide a road map for targeted exploration missions and assist in exploration and collection of hort PGRs from indigenous sources and enable species specific focused exploration missions by mapping species distribution areas and identifying the coordinate points in hotspot regions
  5. To facilitate sustainable collections for ex situ activities for augmentation of species specific genetic diversity by locating and collecting plant propagules of target species from distribution sites identified in the Western Ghats; Identification of successfully established target species under ex situ situations
  6. Make attempts to domesticate species by ex situ planting, compare with wild species in terms of vegetative and reproductive parameters, identify domestication syndromes and reproductive barriers if any, monitoring pest load under ex situ situations; optimization of seed germination, phenological, floral biology, pollination requirements, incompatibility studies, in vitro culture, micropropagation, hardening and acclimatization.
  7. Domestication of edible fruit species hitherto not introduced and cultivated and increase populations of the species through conventional and non-conventional propagation methods; Explore participatory approaches for domestication, leading to cultivation; Establish a demo orchard for each of the targeted species
  8. Optimization of conservation and cryopreservation protocols for recalcitrant seed, in vitro plants  and pollen of targeted  fruit (Jack fruit, Garcinia, Aegle marmelos passion fruit and Rambutan), vegetable(French bean), ornamental crops, RET medicinal plant species for development of ex situ conservation strategies.
  9. Establishment of In vitro active genebank for the selected species towards formulating a stable (without genetic changes) conservation strategy involving in vitro systems including embryonic axes of  targeted crops/species; Expand collections in pollen cryobank for selected species
  10. Genetic Stability testing of conserved PGRs: To assess genetic stability of in vitro and cryopreserved germplasm using SSR/ISSR markers

 

Date of start of this programme: 2009

 

 

PI: 

 

Dr S.Ganeshan

 

CO PI: 

 

Dr. P.E Rajasekharan

Dr. H.S.Yogeesha     

Dr. Anuradha Sane,  

Dr.P.V.R Reddy  

Dr K.Shivaramu  

Dr. Bhanuprakash   

Dr.K.Padmini 

 

Achievements: 

 

  • Compilation of distribution maps for target species like Solanum melongena, Garcinia Feronia elephantum, Limonia acidissima, Psidium spp, Vitis discolarspp, 'Vitis heyneana', Vigna radiata var. sublobata,V. capensis, V. pilosa, V. umbellata, V. dalzelliana., V. mungo var. silvestris, V. radiata var. setulosa, V. grandis ,V.wightii, V. unguiculata, V. pilosa, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna monosperma Aegle marmelos, Andrographis paniculatus, Spondias pinnata,f Ziziphus rugosa, Zizyphus oenoplia Cucumis setosus, C. trigonus, and Luffa  graveolens from IBIN database of the Western Ghat region.
  • Distribution map of the species along the western  ghats was documented covering the coastal states of Kerala, part of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Tree distribution details were recorded for about 1 taluk locations spread across Maharastra  states.
  • Added  location details up to taluk levels as indicated in the parenthesis, Diospora.montana(14), D.melonoxylon(8), D.cloroxylon(0), D.ebenum(4), D .exuscalpa(1), D.ferrea(1),D.kaki(0) ,   D.lanceofolia(0), D.lotus(0), D.pruriense(2), D.sylvestica(5), D.toposia(0),D.peregrina(1), Ensete superba(0)3) Mangifera indica(20), M.sylvetica(0) 4)Butea monosperma (67) 5)Erythrena variegata,(34), E. indica, (2)Anthocephalus cadamba, (7),Nyctanthus arbo-tristis,(6),Woodfordia floribunda,(0),Abelmoschus angulosus,(0),A.moschatus, (4),A.manihot, (4),A.ficulneus, (1), A.esculentus(3))Cucumis setivus(9), (0),C.trigonus(3),C.melo(4),Cucurbita pepo(0)C. maxima(3),)Luffa graveolens, (0)L acutangula(2),L.aegiptica (1),L.achinata (0),)Momordica cochinchinensis, (1),M balsamia (6),M. subangulata, (0),M. charantia(6), M.diocia (0),M hastata (2))Trichosanthesanamalaie(0),T.bracteata,(5),T.cuspidata,(0),T.perottitiana,(0),T.cucumerna(16)
  • Distribution details along with maps, fliers and images to be documented wherever information is available for target species.
  • Establishment of linkage with NRSC for sharing of biodiversity database after acquisition of requisite hardware and software.
  • Extraction of already available distribution maps for target species from existing databases and new regions mapped by NRSC under the data sharing agreement, using DIVA-GIS (available) & ARC-GIS( if approved and purchased). Establish contact with RRSSC/ISRO
  • Germination trials were conducted in two species of Psidium. Germination percent in two species worked out in fruits collected in first season bearing.Fruit characters of two species of  Psidum  documented with vegetative and reproductive pheonology.Clonal propagation attemted in open field and in partial shade condition. F.montana  rooted  well (25% rooting) but failed to establish when repotted.Two Psidium species  cuttings failed to root in similar condition.
  • Evaluation of post-cryopreserved & germinated seedlings of Feronea  elephantum   (Limonia spp)  will be continued as compared with normal seeds, field transplantation and establishment to be taken up. Results showed that after nearly one month of sowing seeds for germination, 24.4 % cryopreserved seeds germinated, as against 57.1% controls. Seedlings are maintained in the net house. A total of 150 plants are maintained

 

Publications:

 

  • P.E.Rajasekharan & S.Ganeshan Designing ex situ conservation strategies for some threatened & other medicinal plant species of South India The IUP Journal of Genetics & Evolution-3(3) 2010,24-31
  • S.Ganeshan & P.E.Rajasekharan Palynological contributions to conservation continuum Journal of Palynology Festschrift Volume(46) 2010
  • Srinivasan Ganeshan, Punathil Ellath Rajasekharan, Sunitha Bhaskaran (India) 2012. In Vitro Conservation of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology Volume 6 Special Issue Forest Restoration 1 pp 126-129
  • Syed Asadulla, Ramandangand Rajasekharan.P.E.2013.-Preliminary phyto chemicals investigation  of Embelia ribes. International Journal of research in pharmacy and chemistry IJRPC, 3(2) 389-91
  • Syed Asadulla, Ramandang, Rajasekharan.P.E., 2012- Botanical standardization of the Embeli Ribes Burm.F. and possibilities of species substitute,in  The pharma review (May - june 2012)   pp. 98-103
  • P.E. Rajasekharan 2012 Genetic resources of horticultural crops in India: Diversity and conservation. Proceedings of the conference National Seminar On “Horticulture for livelihood security, economic prosperity and sustainable development” 24-26th September, 2012  Dept of Horticulture, Aromatic & Medicinal Plants (HAMP) School of Earth Sciences & Natural Resources Management Mizoram University (A Central University) Aizawl- 796 004 pp1-9

 

Presentation in National and International Seminar/Symposium etc.

 

  1. S.Ganeshan & T. Vasantha Kumar 2010.Prospecting, conservation, cultivation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the Indian context. National conference on horticultural biodiversity, Livelihood, Economic Development & Health care-held at Bangalore-29-31May,2010
  2. S.Ganeshan: 2010 Biodiversity Inventorization in different ecosystems & its relevance to Conservation Continuum and Management of Genetic Resources National Conference On Developmental Biology-NACON D Bio 2010, Sep-15-17 2010 Bangalore
  3. S.Ganeshan, 2010. Pollen Conservation as Nuclear Genetic Diversity for improvement of Citrus. Lead talk presentation at National Seminar on Citrus biodiversity for Livelihood and nutritional security. NRCC, Nagpur, Oct-4-5, 2010.
  4. S.Ganeshan,2010. Conserving Plant Genetic Diversity-Current Strategies presented as an invited talk in the National conference on Plant diversity: Prospects and problems of conservation.KJC Life Sciences, Bangalore 27-29 Oct,2010
  5. S.Ganeshan,2010. Gene Banking In MAP-Current Status Of PGR Conservation & Management In The Indian Sub Continent. Accepted for presentation in the National Conference on biodiversity of MAP: collection, Characterization and utilization.Nov-24-25,2010
  6. Dr,P .E. Rajasekharan: Biodiversity, bioprospecting ,innovations and intellectual property rights and Intellectual Property Rights for Grassroot Innovators.Two day National Workshop  on “Intellectual Property Rights for Grassroot Innovators”Jointly organized by PIC-Kerala, KSCSTE & Malabar Botanical Garden (MBG), Kozhikode.

 

Books and Chapters:

 

  • P. E Rajasekharan, B.S Ravish, T. V. Kumar and S.Ganeshan –2013, Pollen Cryobanking for tropical plant species.- book chapter- in Conservation of tropical plant species Ed. M.N.Normah, H.F.Chin, Barbara M. Reed  .Springer USA, pp 65-76
  • Participation of scientists in conferences, meetings, workshops, symposia in India and abroad
  • S.Ganeshan and D.L.Shetti 2012, Use of contemporary Bioresource databases  for Mapping ,occurance  and distribution species of Horticultural importance –A critical evaluation of WG databases- Accepted for publication as key note address in Global Conference on Horticulture for Food , Nutrition and Livelihood options :  Swadesh Prem Jagriti Sangosti –May-28-30, Bhubaneshwar 2012
  • Reports: RPF-II, RPP-II SUBMITTED.

 

Other information:

 

  • The results under this project would help develop a road map for exploration missions across the country
  • New species domesticated in this project will add to the existing crop diversity
  • Optimize complementary conservation strategies for PGR of Horticulture crops.
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