Canopy architecture for higher productivity (mango and grapes) (Ongoing)

PI: 

 

Y.T.N.Reddy

 

CO PI: 

 

R.H. Laxman (Pl. Phy.)

Soudhamani M (Org. Chem.)

R. Venugopalan (Ag. Stat.)

 

Achievements: 

 

MANGO

 

  • In an integrated trial of high density planting, vegetative growth parameters were lower for Paclobutrazol applied trees and those on Vellaikulumaban rootstock.
  • FAI was lower and DIFN was higher for wider spacing compared to closer spacing on Vellaikulumban and for Paclobutrazol treatments.
  • There were no significant differences in light interception by total canopy among spacing, rootstock and Paclobutrazol treatments.
  • Flowering was more at wider spacing and on tree that received Paclobutrazol treatments the trend being more pronounced with Olour rootstock.
  • The highest fruit yield of 7.72 tons/ha. during the 13th orchard year was obtained with 3 m x 3m spacing using Vellaikulumabn rootstock compared to control at 10 x 10 m yielding 1.61 t/ha.  The treatment combinations did not affect fruit quality attributes.
  • All the fruit samples were free from Paclobutrazol residues, however Paclobutrazol @ 0.125 g and 0.25 g a.i/year/plant were noticed in the soil at the time of harvest. Vellailkulumban rootstock found to contain higher amount of residue compared to that of Olour rootstock.
  • The light regimes available at different canopy levels and corresponding photosynthesis rates of mango leaves was quantified at flowering stage.
  • The periphery of the canopy received photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1455 to 1671 µ E m-2 s-1 and the photosynthesis rate was in the range of 8.21 to 9.86 µ mol m-2 s-1.
  • The middle of the canopy which normally receives sunflecs received PAR in the range of 550-750 µ E m-2 s-1. The photosynthesis rate of leaves located at this canopy level ranged from 4.65 to 5.44 µ mol m-2 s-1.
  • The lower portions of the canopy receiving diffused light received PAR in the range of only 80 to 125 µ E m-2 s-1. Correspondingly the photosynthesis rate of leaves located at the lower portions of the canopy ranged from 1.12 to 2.27 µ mol m-2 s-1.
  • When the photosynthetic efficiency of the leaves positioned at the middle and lower levels of the canopy was compared to the fully exposed peripheral leaves, the efficiency reduced by 43-45 % at middle of the canopy and 77-86% at bottom level of the canopy.

 

GRAPES

 

  • Five Spatial pruning (Forward) was effected in Flame And Sharad Seedless at 15 days intervals starting from 1st September to 1st November 2012.
  • Crop yield and quality was poor in September pruned vines and most of the crop was lost due to heavy rains during peak flowering stage.
  • Vines pruned during first week of October were harvested after 102 days. The mean bunch weight was 220 g, 50 berry weight 140 g, TSS ranged from 17 – 17.4OB and acidity 0.72%. Colour development was not up to the mark.
  • The third date of pruning resulted in harvest after 110 days. Mean bunch weight was 255g, 50berry weight ranged from 176 -198 g, TSS varied from 18.8 – 19.0OB and acidity 0.60 – 0.57%.
  • Vines pruned on second week of October resulted in harvesting after 116 days. Mean bunch weight was 314-336 g, 50 berry weight 200–252 g, TSS ranged from 19.0 – 20.4OB and acidity 0.56 - 0.46%.
  • Raised 650 grafts of ArkaMridula meant for meadow orcharding of guava at a spacing of 2.0 x 1.5m and planting will be done in the ensuing monsoon.
  • About 50 plants each of grafts, tissue cultured plants, air layers and plants raised by cuttings are procured and planting will be done in the ensuing season.
  • In situ grafting of new grape cv. Saritha Krishna, Black Seedless, was done to conduct further experimentation of Y trellis.
  • About 100 plants of Flame seedless were removed to establish new scions viz., Red Globe and Crimson Seedless in their place to conduct further studies.
  • Eight new grape rootstocks viz., 1103-P, St. George, 110-R, 1613-C, Salt Creek, Talaki-5-A, 1616-C and SO4.

 

Improvement of guava and annona for yield and quality (New)

1.1.9

PI: 

T. Sakthivel

CO PI: 

B.N.S.Murthy

Achievements: 
  • In custard apple cv. ArkaSahan, back crossing with A. squamosa was effected and nearly 50 kg of crossed fruits were harvested.

Breeding purple passion fruit and strawberry for superior traits (Ongoing)

1.1.8

PI: 

B.N.S. Murthy

CO PI: 

P. Sampathkumar

A.K. Sexana (Pl. Path.)

Achievements: 
  • During the period under report 3 accessions of passion fruit, 41 accessions of strawberrywere collected.
  • Hybridization was effected between Baghawa X Wild pomegranate (Pollen collected from sub-Himalayan region) and Ganesh X Wild pomegranate.

Incorporation of bacterial blight resistance in pomegranate (Ongoing)

1.1.7

PI: 

B.N.S. Murthy

CO PI: 

T. Sakthivel    

A. Rekha

C. Gopalakrishnan (Pl. Path.)

Achievements: 
  • Over 5000 seedlings of pomegranate were raised for challenge inoculation for screening for resistance to Bacterial Nodal Blight disease.

Rootstock breeding in grapes (New)

1.1.6

PI: 

C. Vasugi

CO PI: 

P. Sampathkumar

K.K.Uppreti

Achievements: 
  • Rootstock cuttings of grape varieties 110 3P, St.George, 110 R, 1613 C, Salt Creek, Telaki 5A, 1616 C, SO 4 were collected.

Breeding papaya for PRSV, leaf curl virus & drought tolerance (Ongoing)

1.1.5

PI: 

C.Vasugi

CO PI: 

M.R. Dinesh B.N.S. Murthy M. Krishna Reddy (Pl. Path.) Prakash Patil (Pl. Phy.) Abraham Verghese (Ag. Ent.)

Achievements: 
  • The intergeneric hybrid progenies (BLF X BLH of R2P2) of the earlier generation were evaluated for fruit characteristics coupled with field tolerance. Based on the evaluation for fruit characteristics and field tolerance, the progenies viz., R1P16, R1P17, R2P17, R1P20 and R1P24 were selected.

Improvement of jack fruit and pummelo for quality and productivity (Ongoing)

1.1.4

PI: 

Prakash Patil

CO PI: 

T. Saktivel

P.V.R. Reddy

Anuradha Sane

Achievements: 
  • Among the evaluated accessions in jackfruit, a clone with coppery red flakes having fruit weight of 9.7 kg with flake to fruit ratio of 0.48 has been found promising.

Evaluation of under-utilized fruits for yield, quality and adaptability (Ongoing)

1.1.3

PI: 

T. Saktivel

CO PI: 

B.N.S. Murthy

P. Sampathkumar

Achievements: 
  • Nine accessions comprising of Red Bold Rambutan, Yellow Bold Rambutan, Mangosteen, Pulasan, Jamun, Egg fruit and Bael were collected from the survey in Courtrallam.

Improvement of jamun and sapota for dwarf tree stature and higher productivity (Ongoing)

1.1.2

PI: 

A. Rekha

CO PI: 

M.R. Dinesh

A.K. Saxena (Pl. Path.)

P.V.R. Reddy (Ag. Ent.)

Achievements: 
  • Sapota germplasm of 33 accessions were evaluated for yield parameters among the high yielding types ‘Seedling 63’ had lowest height of 3.00m, with 12kg yield. Another seedling-69 with oval shaped fruits and dwarf plant type was identified.
  • 41 accessions of jamun were collected during the year.

Improvement of mango for yield and quality (Ongoing)

1.1.1

PI: 

M.R.Dinesh

CO PI: 

C. Vasugi

Abraham Verghese (Ag. Ent.)

A.K. Sexana (Pl. Path.)

K.S. Shivshankara (Pl. Phy.)

(w.e.f. 26/07/11)

Achievements: 
  • The total collection in mango stands at 575.  During the period under report 33 accessions from Vengurle, Paria, Pantnagar, Malavalli and by survey were collected. One progeny R1P2 from the combination Amrapali x ArkaAnmol was selected for high TSS, good keeping quality and deep yellow coloured pulp.
  • The evaluation carried out for fruit characteristics in guava resulted in the primary selection of five hybrids, of which two hybrids are from Apple Colour x Purple Local, one each had the parentage Purple Local x Apple colour, Purple Local X Sardar and Thailand X Purple local.
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