Isolation of natural antioxidants from mango processing waste (Ongoing)

Objective: 

 

  • To develop and standardize a method for the isolation of antioxidants from mango processing waste
  • To utilize the antioxidants as nutraceutical food additive and also as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants in processed foods

 

Date of start of this programme: 01-07-2009

 

PI: 

 

V. K. Rao

 

CO PI: 

 

C.K. Narayana,

I.N.D. Gowda,

D.V. Sudhakar Rao

 

Achievements: 

 

  • Addition of 0.08% (wt/wt) of peel antioxidants to mango concentrate (65% solids) has resulted in 100% increase in FRAP antioxidant capacity of mango concentrate.
  • Antioxidant status of mango concentrate (65% solids) fortified with peel antioxidants was evaluated after storage for 6 months.  There was no appreciable loss in DPPH scavenging activity and FRAP antioxidant capacity.
  • The antioxidants are separated in to alcohol soluble and alcohol insoluble antioxidants.  The yield of alcohol soluble antioxidants ranged between 18 to 22% and alcohol insoluble antioxidants from 8 to 13%.
  • Alcohol soluble antioxidants showed superior antioxidant capacity (70 mg/g AEAC) when compared to alcohol insoluble fraction (41 mg/g AEAC).
  • Alcohol soluble fractions showed higher titratable acidity (5.6% citric acid equivalents).  So these can be used as accidulants in beverages to bring down the pH.
  • Kernell antioxidants are found to be stable when subjected to heat (110°C) for 1 hour.
  •  Kernels were also extracted using safe protic solvents.  The yield ranged from 13 to 17%.  Antioxidant capacity of the extracts ranged from 800 to 974 mg/g AEAC.
  • The isolated antioxidants are tested for pesticide residues.  No pesticide residues are found in the extracts.

 

Biochemical and molecular assessment of chilling injury in mango (Ongoing)

Objective: 

 

  • To understand the biochemical and molecular basis of chilling injury in mango
  • To identify the varietal variation in susceptibility to chilling injury
  • To develop methods to overcome the chilling injury in mangoes

 

Date of start of this programme: 2009

 

PI: 

 

K.S. Shivashankara

 

CO PI: 

 

D.V. Sudhakara Rao,

K.V. Ravishankar

 

Achievements: 

 

Varietal variation in the chilling injury susceptibility among mango cvs. Alphonso, Banganapalli, Dashehari and Kesar have been evaluated. Variation in antioxidant status of the fruits during low temperature storage has been estimated in these varieties. Fatty acid unsaturation was estimated and related to the extent of susceptibility to chilling injury of these cultivars. Variation in the susceptibility and its relationship with fatty acids in different stages of maturity was also studied. Different postharvest treatments for reducing the chilling injury by temperature conditioning and chilling shock treatment before storage are being evaluated.

 

Investigations on the molecular physiology of fruit disorders – spongy tissue in Alphonso Mango (Ongoing)

Objective: 

 

  • To Identify the cause of spongy tissue in Alphonso mango
  • To understand the physiological and biochemical changes associated with spongy tissue formation
  • To develop eco-friendly strategies for prevention of spongy tissue formation

 

Date of start of this programme: July 2007

 

PI: 

 

V. Ravindra

 

CO PI: 

 

S. Shivashankar

 

Achievements: 

 

  • For the first time, the cause of spongy tissue formation in Alphonso mango has been traced to the shift of seed into germination mode with an intact funiculus connection at hilum and a metabolically active embryo, around 60% maturity stage of fruits and the consequent drawal of water and other resources from the adjoining mesocarp tissue.
  • Physiological, biochemical and radiotracer tritium studies have confirmed the shift of seed in to germination mode around 60 to 70% maturity stage of the fruit.
  • Induction of seed dormancy and/or down regulation of seed metabolism at the right physiological maturity stage of fruit was found to be the right strategy for prevention of spongy tissue in Alphonso mango.
  • "Arka Sakanivarak" an environmentally-safe formulation was developed and successfully field tested in 20 farmer's orchards in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts of the Konkan region of Maharashtra, the heart of Alphonso, in collaboration with Alphonso Export Facility, Ratnagiri, of MSAMB, Pune during 2011 mango season. The technology was approved by VTIC on 19th January 2013. The technology will be patented and commercialized for the benefit of the Alphonso growers of the country.
  • A double blind study indicated excellent (>95%) prevention of spongy tissue not only in Alphonso and  Mallika but also Jelly seed in Dasehari and Amrapali varieties of mango with two pre-harvest applications at 10-days interval between 50 to 60% maturity stages of the fruit.
  • Highly staggered flowering and fruit set in the recent times due to climate change is resulting in fruits of different maturity stages concurrently on adjacent shoots and even on the same panicle at a given time making it difficult to implement the  pre-harvest spray treatment to fruits at the specified physiological stage.
  • A technology to induce synchronized flowering and fruit set by October/November is being developed under the NICRA project to effectively implement the technology for prevention of spongy tissue at the specified physiological stage.

 

Physiological studies on impact of moisture stress on horticultural crops (ongoing)

PI: 

R.M. Bhatt

CO PI: 

N.K.S. Rao,

K.K. Upreti,

R.H. Laxman

Studies on the impact of elevated temperature on growth, physiology and quality of horticultural crop(Ongoing)

PI: 

R.H. Laxman

CO PI: 

N.K.S. Rao

K.K. Upreti

R.M. Bhatt

K.S. Shivashankara

Impact of elevated CO2 on horticultural crops (Ongoing)

PI: 

N.K. S. Rao

CO PI: 

R.M. Bhatt,

K.K. Upreti 

R.H. Laxman

Molecular basis of systemic acquired resistance against diseases and allelopathic interactions in horticultural crops(Ongoing)

Objective: 

 

  • To assess the efficacy of simple inorganic molecules exhibiting SAR characteristics
  • To understand the biochemical mode of action of simple inorganic molecules exhibiting SAR characteristics
  • To study the effects of a few SAR chemicals on the incidence of Alternaria infection on tomato
  • To develop a method for the management of Alternaria in tomato by application of SAR agents
  • To determine the effects of cropping sequence on weed population dynamics, resource competition between crop and weed and allelopathic impact of crop residues.
  • To work out specific components of cropping sequences that may be important for weed control/management and crop yield.
  • To understand the benefits of allelopathic cover crop, Mucuna utilis, when taken in rotation with vegetable crops
  • To study the benefits of allelopathic cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties
  • To develop suitable non-chemical strategies for weed management for horticulture cropping systems.

 

Date of start of this programme: July 2007

 

PI: 

 

S Shivashankar

 

CO PI: 

 

V. Ravindra

V.K. Rao

A. Ganesha Murthy

Paneer Selvam

 

Achievements: 

 

  • Application of the elicitor  to tomato leaves before infection by the pathogen resulted in a rapid increase of the activities of antioxidative enzymes like, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase  and superoxide dismutase  as against little or no change in pathogen infected samples.
  • Plants treated with the elicitor followed by the pathogen also showed a marked increase in the activities of both Peroxidase and SOD up to 7 days indicating that the chemically induced enzyme activity using elicitor was positively responding to host-pathogen interaction.
  •  Results revealed that the elicitor application before pathogen helps to induce positive defense reaction in tomato for at least 7 days and remained active for up to 12 days as shown by the activity of SOD.
  • The levels of the three ROS namely, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide showed a marked increase in elicitor treated plants as compared to control plants. The results indicate that the disease controlling effect of phosphate was mediated by the host response.
  • The tomato plants treated with the elicitors were found to be protected against the pathogen by as much as 60%.
  • The weed species including the noxious weed, Cyperus were checked to an extent of >95% by   Mucuna.
  • Weed species like Mollugo, Urena, Portulaca, Bacopa, Euphorbia, Digitaria, Eclipta Sonchus etc have been completely eradicated.
  • Mucuna has left about 20t/ha biomass at harvest.
  • The analysis of soil samples revealed substantial increase in the contents of phenolic acids like p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanilic acid, p-coumaric acid and syrengic acid.
  • The total phenolic acids were more than twice as compared to the samples drawn from non-Mucuna area.
  • The fungi counts (X 105) were more than twice in the area where Mucuna was grown as compared to non-Mucuna area. The Bacteria and Actinomycetes population was also substantially higher in the Mucuna grown area.
  • Glomalin”, a polysaccharide, involved in soil aggregate stability was found to increase by three fold in Mucuna plot over non-Mucuna plot.  This is a confirmation test to say that soil quality improves following Mucuna cultivation.
  •  Mucuna residues had no deleterious effects but benefited these vegetable crops by increasing their yields by 10 to 15% through improvement in soil physical, chemical and biological properties besides providing excellent weed control by more than 98%.
  • The studies revealed that the allelopathic activity of the crop wastes is two dimensional in nature. Firstly, allelopathy has a physical dimension in the form of shade to prevent the germination and growth of certain weed seeds of the soil seed bank. Secondly, the chemical dimension of allelopathy is caused by release of allelochemicals in to the soil from the organic mulches due to their bio-degradation in course of time.
  • Most significant achievement: It is possible to control / eradicate the highly noxious weed Cyperus allelopathically through continuous use of allelopathic crop wastes as mulches, which otherwise cannot be controlled with any of the pre-emergent weedicides available in our country.
  • Growing crops in mango orchards with minimum tillage can control weeds, enhance biodiversity, alter pest and disease dynamics, improve soil health, and enhance carbon sequestration in addition to additional income to the farmers.
  •  French bean, sweet potato and potato as sole crops and Mucuna as cover crop under mango orchard can be recommended for cultivation in bearing mango orchards in peninsular India.

 

Studies on biochemical and molecular basis of salinity tolerance in horticultural crops and amelioration of stress responses by growth substances (Ongoing)

PI: 

K.K. Upreti

CO PI: 

R.H. Laxman

R.M. Bhatt

M. Manmohan  

L.R. Varalakshm

P. Paneerselvam (w.e.f. 17/08/10)

Development of cultivation systems (including greenhouse) and machinery for mechanization of Ornamental and medicinal crops (Ongoing)

PI: 

A. Carolin Rathinakumari

CO PI: 

G. Senthil Kumaran, A.K. Saxena.

D.V. Sudhakar Rao (Hort.)

I.N. Doreyappa Gowda

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